Over 10 years we help companies reach their financial and branding goals. Maxbizz is a values-driven consulting agency dedicated.




411 University St, Seattle


The Works Referenced in the World Widows Report, 2016.

Aboderin, I. (2003). International family support and old age economic security in Ghana. In: Lloyd-Sherlock, P. (2004) Living longer: Ageing, development and social protection. London: Zed Books, ch. 10.

Action Aid (2007). Hit or miss? Women’s rights and the millennium development Goals. London: Action Aid.

Aday, F., Lemma, M., O’Flynn, P. and Waters-Bayer, A. (2001). A challenge and an opportunity: Innovation by women farmers in Tigray. In: Reij C. and Waters-Bayer, A. eds. Farmer innovation in Africa: a source of inspiration for agricultural development. London: Earthscan Publications.

Adelman, L., Middleton, S. and Ashworth, K. (2003). Britain’s poorest children: severe and persistent poverty and social exclusion. London: Save the Children.

Adelman, M. (2004). The battering state: Towards a political economy of domestic violence. Journal of Poverty 8(3), pp.45-64.

Afary, J. (2009). Sexual politics in modern Iran. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press..

Afshar, H. (1989). Women in the work and poverty trap in Iran. In: Afshar, H. and Agarwal, B. eds. Women, poverty and ideology in Asia. Basingstoke: Macmillan, ch. 2.

Agarwal, B. (1989). Women, land and ideology in India. In: Afshar, H. and Agarwal, B. eds. Women, poverty and ideology in Asia. Basingstoke: Macmillan, ch. 3.

Agarwal, B. (1994). A field of one’s own: Gender and land rights in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Agarwal, B. (1997). ‘Bargaining’ and gender relations: Within and beyond the household. Feminist Economics 3(1), pp. 1-50.

Agarwal, B. (2007). Gender inequality. In: Basu, K. ed. The Oxford companion to economics in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Ahmed, Z. (2006). Sorry plight of India farm widows [online]. BBC News, August 28. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5263462.stm [accessed July 2009].

Ait-Hamou, L. (2004). Women’s struggle against Muslim fundamentalism in Algeria: strategies or a lesson for survival? In Imam, A., Morgan, J. and Yuval-Davis, N. eds. Warning signs of fundamentalisms. London: Women Living Under Muslim Laws Publications. Available online at: http://www.wluml.org/english/pubsfulltxt.shtml?cmd%5B87%5D=i-87-98541.

Al-Ali, N. (2007). Iraqi women: untold stories from 1948 to the present. London: Zed Books.

Al-Ali, N. and Pratt, N. (2009). Women and war in the Middle East: Transnational perspectives. London: Zed Books.

Al-Jawaheri, Y. (2008). Women in Iraq: the gender impact of international sanctions. London: I. B. Tauris.

Alam, A., Murthi, M., Yemtsov, R., Murrugarra, E., Dudwick, N., Hamilton, E. and Tiongson, E. (2005). Growth, poverty, and inequality: Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

Alber, E., Geest, S. and Whyte, S. (2008). Generations in Africa: connections and conflicts. Berlin: LIT Verlag.

Alcock, P. and Craig, G. (2009). International social policy: welfare regimes in the developed world. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G. and Russo, L. (2008). Beyond relief: food security in protracted crises. Warwickshire, UK: Practical Action Publishing.

Amawi, A. (2003). Women and property rights in Islam. In: Sabbagh, S. ed. Arab women: between defiance and restraint. New York: Olive Branch Press.

Amin, S. (1998). Family Structure and Change in Rural Bangladesh. Population Studies 52(2), pp. 201-213.

Anh, T. T. V. (1999). Women and rural land in Vietnam. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Rienner Lynne Publishers, ch. 5.

Ansell, N. (2006). Children, youth and development. London: Routledge.

Appleton, J. (2000). ‘At my age I should be sitting under that tree’: The impact of AIDS on Tanzanian lakeshore communities. Gender & Development 8(2), pp.19-27.

Arora, S. and Singhi, L. C. (2009). Uttar Pradesh. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 13.

Asiimwe, J. (2002). Women and the struggle for land in Uganda. In: Tripp, A. M. and Kwesiga, J. C. The women’s movement in Uganda: history, challenges, and prospects. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.

Awaz Foundation Pakistan: Centre for Development Services (2010). Denial of women’s rights of inheritance: Enhancing their vulnerability to domestic and societal violence [online]. Available at: http://awazcds.org.pk/Downloads/rstudies/Inheritance%20Rights.pdf

Badgett, M. V. L. and Folbre, N. (2001). Assessing care: Gender norms and economic outcomes. In: Loutif, M. F. ed. Women, gender and work: What is equality and how do we get there? Geneva: International Labour Organization (ILO), ch. 16.

Baldauf, S. (2005). Islamic law aids tsunami widows. Christian Science Monitor.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh (2007). Statistical yearbook of Bangladesh 2005, 25th ed. Dhaka: Planning Division, Ministry of Planning.

Barrientos, A. and Hulme, D. (2008) eds. Social protection for the poor and poorest: concepts, policies and politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Barry, K. (1996). Industrialization and economic development: The costs to women. In: Barry, K. ed. Vietnam’s women in transition. London: Macmillan, ch. 9.

BBC (2006b). ‘Sorry plight of India farm widows’ [online]. BBC News,  August 28. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5263462.stm.

BBC (2014). ‘Kenya’s battle to end ‘sex for fish’ trade [online]. BBC News, February 17. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-26186194.

BBC (2015). ‘Ebola: Mapping the outbreak’ [online]. BBC News, April 13.  Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-28755033 [accessed 13 April 2015].

Bennett, K. M. (1997). A longitudinal study of well-being in widowed women. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, pp. 61-66.

Bercovitch, J. and Fretter, J. (2004). Regional guide to international conflict and management from 1945 to 2003. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Berrick, J. (1997). Faces of poverty: portraits of women and children on welfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bestman, O. (2014). The story of Musu Dolo – a mother of five, now widowed by Ebola – IFRC [online]. Available at: http://www.ifrc.org/en/news-and-media/news-stories/africa/liberia/the-s….

Bhat, M. and Kanbargi, R. (1984). Estimating the incidence of widow and widower re-marriage in India. Population Studies 38(1), pp. 89-103.

Bhat, M. and Rajan, I. (1992). Paternal deprivation and child survival. Demography India 21(2), pp. 167-177.

Bhat, P. N. M. (1998). Widowhood and mortality in India. In: Chen, M. ed. Widows in India: Social neglect and public action. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 4.

Bhattacharya, M. (2008). In Radha’s name: Widows and other women in Brindaban. New Delhi: Tulika Books.

Bhuiya, A., Chowdhury, M., Ahmed, F. and Adams, A. M. (2001). Bangladesh: An intervention study of factors underlying increasing equity in child survival. In: Evans, T., Whitehead, M., Diderichsen, F., Bhuiya, A. and Wirth, M. eds. Challenging inequalities in health: From ethics to action. New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 16.

Bibars, I. (2001). Victims and heroines: Women, welfare and the Egyptian state. London: Zed Books.

Bio-medical Research and Training Institute (BRTI) (2000). BRTI epidemic status report: Zimbabwe. Harare: Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, BRTI.

Black, M. (2005). Gender and equality: Striving for justice in an unequal world. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).

Blackie, M. and Conroy, A. (2006). The Collapse of agriculture. In: Conroy, A. C., Blackie, M., Whiteside, A., Malewezi, J. C. and Sachs, J. D. Poverty, AIDS and hunger: Breaking the poverty trap in Malawi. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, ch. 5.

Boskin, M. T. and Shoven, J. B. (1986). Poverty among the elderly: Where are the holes in the safety net? Working Paper No. 1923. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

Bremmer, J. and van den Bosch, L. (1995) eds. Between poverty and the pyre: Moments in the history of widowhood. London: Routledge.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (2006a). ‘Poverty haunts Afghan security quest’ [online]. BBC News, January 31. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4662824.stm [accessed 31 January 2006].

Brook, R. (2007). More than eyes can see: A nine month journey into the AIDS epidemic. London: Marion Boyers Publishers.

Brown, J. and Chowdhury, S. D. (2009). West Bengal. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Brown, J. and Purwanti, F. (2002). Registration of land and women’s land rights on Java: Why so many married couples register marital property in the name of one spouse and what has been the impact on women’s land rights. Seattle, USA: Rural Development Institute.

Buncombe, A. (2009). ‘Men offered £400 to marry Nepal’s widows’ [online]. The Independent, August 11. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/men-offered-163400-to-marr… [accessed 11 August 2009].

Burd-Sharps, S., Lewis, K. and Martins, E. B. (2009). The measure of America: American human development report, 2008-2009. New York: Columbia University Press.

Burnett, J. S. (2005). Where soldiers fear to tread: At work in the fields of anarchy. London: William Heinemann.

Cain, M. (1986). The consequences of reproductive failure: Dependence, mobility and mortality among the elderly of rural South Asia. Population Studies 40(3), pp. 375-388.

Cain, M. (1988). The material consequences of reproductive failure in rural South Asia. In: Dwyer, D. and Bruce, J. eds. A home divided: Women and income in the Third World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, ch. 2.

Caribbean Development Bank and Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (2003). Country poverty assessment. Final report, vol. 1 of 2: Main report.

CDC.gov (2002). Stigma and discrimination: Links for World AIDS Day 2002 [online]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/wad.htm [accessed: December 29 2009].

CDC.gov (2015). Ebola Outbreak in West Africa – Case Counts | Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever [online]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/Ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/case-counts.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2000). HIV-related knowledge and stigma: United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49, pp. 1062-1064.

Central Statistics Office, Government of Botswana (2003). National statistical tables 2001. Gaborone: Census Office.

Chambers, P. (2005). Older widows and the life course: Multiple narratives of hidden lives. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Chang, L. T. (2008). Factory girls: Voices from the heart of modern China. London: Picador.

Channel Four (2007). Sri Lanka: Killing for peace. Unreported world. 2007 series, episode 19.

Channel Four (2009). Nepal: The living dead. Unreported world. 2009 series, episode 18.

Channel Four (2009). Papua New Guinea: Bush knives and black magic. Unreported world. 2009 series, episode 9.

Chant, S. (1997). Women-headed households: Diversity and dynamics in the developing world. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.

Chant, S. (2007). Gender, generation and poverty: Exploring the ‘feminisation of poverty’ in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Chant, S. and Craske, N. (2003). Gender in Latin America. London: Latin America Bureau.

Chant, S. and McIlwaine, C. (2009). Geographies of development in the 21st century: An introduction to the global South. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Chaudhry, L. N. (2010). Women and poverty: Salient findings from a gendered analysis of a quasi-anthropological study in rural Punjab and Sindh. In: Ahmad, S. ed. Pakistani women: Multiple locations and competing narratives. Karachi: Oxford University Press, ch. 4.

Chen, M. (2000). Perpetual mourning: Widowhood in rural India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chen, M. A., Sebstad, J. and O’Connell, L. (1999). Counting the invisible workers. World Development, 27(3).

Chen, M. and Drèze, J. (1995). Widowhood and well-being in rural North India. In: Madan, V. ed. (2002) The village in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ch. 20. Excerpted from original published in Das Gupta, M. and Chen, L. C. eds. Women’s health in India: Risk and vulnerability. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ch. 9.

Chothia, F. (2014). ‘Ebola drains already weak West African health systems’ [online]. BBC News, September 24. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29324595.

Chowdhry, P. (2009). Editor’s introduction: Understanding land rights of women. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Clarke, J. with Fox Piven, F. (2009). An American welfare state? In: Alcock, P. and Craig, G. eds. International social policy: Welfare regimes in the developed world, 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, ch. 2.

Coghlan, B., Brennan, R. J., Ngoy, P., Dofara, D., Otto, B., Clements, M. and Stewart, T. (2006). Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a nationwide survey. The Lancet 367, pp. 44-51.

Conroy, A. C., Blackie, M. J., Whiteside, A., Malewezi, J. C. and Sachs, J. D. (2006). Poverty, AIDS and hunger: Breaking the poverty trap in Malawi. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Conroy, A. C. and Whiteside, A. (2006). The AIDS crisis. In:,Conroy, A. C., Blackie, M. J., Whiteside, A., Malewezi, J. C. and Sachs, J. D. (2006). Poverty, AIDS and hunger: Breaking the poverty trap in Malawi. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Croll, E. (2000). Endangered daughters: Discrimination and development in Asia. London: Routledge.

Crompton, R. (2006). Employment and the family: The reconfiguration of work and family life in contemporary societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crowley, E. (2001). Land rights. In: Quisumbing, A. R. and Meinzen-Dick, R. S. eds. Empowering women to achieve food security. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Das, V. (2004). Oxford handbook of Indian sociology. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Das Gupta, M., Chen, L. C. and Krishnan, T. N. eds. (1998) Women’s health in India: Risk and vulnerability. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Dasgupta, P. (1993). An inquiry into well-being and destitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Davidova, N. (2007). The interrelationship of poverty and health: The longitudinal experience..Paper to the international workshop Health, Health Policy and Poverty in Russia, May 2007.

Davidova, N. and Manning, N. (2009). Russia: State socialism to marketized welfare. In: Alcock, P. and Craig, G. eds. International social policy: Welfare regimes in the developed world, 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, ch. 10.

Davis, D. S., and Wang, F. (2009). Creating wealth and poverty in post-socialist China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

De, A., Drèze, J., Kumar, S., Noronha, C. Pushpendra, K. Rampal, A., Samson, M. and Sinha, A. (1999). Public report on basic education in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Deere, C. D. and Léon, M. (2001). Empowering women: Land and property rights in Latin America. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Demaret, L. and Khalef, A. (2004). Luc Demaret and Ahmed Khalef, April 28: World day for safety and health at work: Work kills more than wars [online]. Available at: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/26/190.html [accessed July 2009].

Demick, B. (2010). Nothing to envy: Real lives in North Korea. London: Granta.

Department for International Development (DFID), UK (2007). Protected. Developments 39, p. 20.

Devi, K. B. and Arora, S. (2009). Manipur. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land wwnership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 8.

De Vries, J. and Toennissen, G. (2001). Securing the harvest. Wallingford: CABI.

DFID (2000). Poverty elimination and the empowerment of women: Strategies for achieving the international development targets. London: DFID.

Dhonte, P., Bhattacharya, R. and Yousef, T. eds. (2004). Middle East and Central Asia databook. London: Europa Publications.

Dowden, R. (2008). Africa: Altered states, ordinary miracles. London: Portobello Books.

Draimin, B. H. and Reich, W. A. (2005). Troubled tapestries: Children, families, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. In: Foster, G., Levine, C. and Williamson, J. eds. A generation at risk: The global impact of HIV/AIDS on orphans and vulnerable children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ch. 8.

Drakulic, S. (1994). The rape of women in Bosnia. In: Davies, M. ed. Women and violence: Realities and responses worldwide. London: Zed Books.

Drèze, J. (1990). Widows in rural India. Discussion paper, Suntory-Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines, Development Economics Research Programme, London School of Economics.

Drèze, J., Lanjouw, P. and Sharma, N. (1998). Economic development in Palanpur, 1957- 93. In: Lanjouw, P. and Stern, N. eds. Economic development in Palanpur over five decades. Oxford: Clarendon Press, ch. 2.

Drèze, J. and Sen, A. (2002). Widowhood and gender relations. In: Drèze, J. and Sen, A. India: Development and participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, section 7.6.

Duncan, R. (2012). ‘Empowering Kenya’s widows: Two NGOs seek to reverse the discrimination against Kenya’s widows’ [online]. Think Africa Press, September 13. Available at: http://thinkafricapress.com/kenya/widows-rights-gender-land-support-ugunja-nyanza.

Dutt, V. and Harma, R. (2010). Invisible forgotten sufferers: The plight of widows around the world. New Delhi: Konark Publishers and The Loomba Foundation.

Dyson, T. and Moore, M. (1983). On kinship structure, female autonomy, and demographic behavior in India. Population and Development Review 9(1), pp. 35-60.

Economist, The, August 8 2007. ‘India’s Widows: Singing for Their Supper,’ p. 49.

Eitzen, D. S. and Eitzen-Smith, K. (2009). Experiencing poverty: Voices from the bottom, 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc..

Ekaas, S., Cooke, R. D. and Moore, B. (2004). Rural women’s access to land and property in selected countries. FAO, IFAD, ILC.

Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, F. and Freeman, H. A. (2004). Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction policies. Abingdon: Routledge.

Ellis, P. (2003). Women, gender and development in the Caribbean: Reflections and projections. London: Zed Books.

Enloe, C. (2010). Nimo’s war, Emma’s war: Making feminist sense of the Iraq War. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Epstein, E. (2013). HIV stigma in Kenyan women [online]. Available at: http://girlsglobe.org/2013/01/09/hiv-stigma-in-kenyan-women/.

Eurelectric (2003). Electricity Tariffs as of 1 January 2003 (Published Tariffs). Brussels: Eurelectric.

Ewelukwa, U. U. (2002). Post-colonialism, gender, customary injustice: Widows in African societies. Human Rights Quarterly 24(2), pp. 424-486.

Farm Radio (2007). Widow cleansing: ‘Good’ intentions – negative consequences. Package 82, script 9 [online]. Available at: http://www.farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/82-9script_en.asp 

Fasoranti, O. O. and Aruna, J. O. (2002). A cross-cultural comparison of practice relating to widowhood and widow-inheritance among the Igbo and Yoruba in Nigeria. Journal of World Anthropology: Occasional Papers 3(1), pp. 53-73.

Federation of Women Lawyers: Kenya and International Women’s Human Rights Clinic at Georgetown University Law Center (2008). Kenyan laws and harmful customs curtail women’s equal enjoyment of ICESCR rights. A supplementary submission to the Kenyan government’s initial report under the ICESCR, scheduled for review by the United Nations Committee on economic, social and cultural rights during its 41st session (November 3-21, 2008).

Feldman, S., Byles, J., Mishra, G. and Powers, J. (2002). The health and social needs of recently widowed older women in Australia. Australian Journal of Ageing 21(3), pp. 135-140.

Fisk, R. (2001), ‘Lebanon turns screw on the Palestinians who cannot ‘go home’’ [online]. The Independent, August 6. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/robert–fisk-lebanon– turns-screw-on-the-palestinians-who-cannot-go-home-664811.html [accessed September 2009].

Fitzpatrick, D. (2008). Women’s rights to land and housing in tsunami-affected Aceh, Indonesia. Asia Research Institute, Aceh working paper no. 3, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore.

Folbre, N. (1984). Market opportunities, genetic endowments, and intrafamily resource distribution: Comment., American Economic Review 74(3).

Folbre, N. (1988). The black four of hearts: towards a new paradigm of household economics. In: Dwyer, D. and Bruce, J. eds. A home divided: women and income in the Third World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Forster, M. and d’Ercole, M. M. (2005). Income distribution and poverty in OECD countries in the second half of the 1990s. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 22. Paris: OECD.

Fraser Institute (2006). Poverty in Canada: 2006 Update.

Gaetano, A. M. and Jacka, T. eds. (2004) Women in rural-to-urban migration in contemporary China. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gamharter, K., Gostin, L., Hodge Jr, J. and Van Puymbroeck, R. (2007). Legal Aspects of HIV/AIDS. World Bank Group.

Gauld, R. ed. (2005). Comparative health policy in the Asia-Pacific. Berkshire, UK: McGraw-Hill Education for Open University Press.

Gilmartin, C. (1990). Violence against women in contemporary China. In: Lipman, J. N. and Harrell, S. eds. Violence in China: Essays in culture and counterculture. Albany, NY: State University of New York (SUNY), ch. 8.

Ginn, J. (1998). Older women in Europe: East follows West in the feminization of poverty? Ageing International 24(4), pp. 101-122.

Goldhagen, D. (2010). Genocide: Worse than war [online]. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Arlington, VA, USA. Available at:.http://to.pbs.org/hMZzq0.

Goma Epidemiology Group (1995). Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: What happened in Goma, Zaire, in July 1994? The Lancet 345, pp. 339-344.

Government of India (2005). Report of the National Commission on macroeconomics and health. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Government of India (2008). Marital status and age at marriage: An analysis of 2001 census data. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.

Graham, H. (2007). Unequal lives: Health and socioeconomic inequalities. Maidenhead: Open University Press and McGraw-Hill Education.

Grassly, N. C. and Timaeus, I. M. (2005). Methods to estimate the number of orphans as a result of AIDS and other causes in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 39(3), pp. 365-375.

Green, D. (2008). From poverty to power: How active citizens and effective states can change the world. Oxford: Oxfam International.

Green, L. (1999). Fear as a way of life: Mayan widows in rural Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press.

Guardian Weekly, The (2008). ‘Helping the widows of Congo’ [online]. The Guardian, May 29. Available at: http:/www.guardianweekly.co.uk/?page=editorial&id=600&catID=7 [accessed January 2009].

Gunga, S. O. (2009). The politics of widowhood and re-marriage among the Luo of Kenya. Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. Premier Issue, New Series, Vol. 1, pp. 161-174.

Gunther, I. and Klasen, S. (2009). Measuring Chronic Non-Income Poverty. In: Addison, T., Hulme, D. and Kanbur, R. eds. Poverty dynamics: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. 4.

Guttmacher Institute (2012). Remarriage, HIV infection linked among women in sub-Saharan Africa. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(2).

Haggard, S. and Kaufman, R. R. (2008). Development, democracy, and welfare states: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Hameed, S. S. (1995). Status of Muslim widows [in India]. In: Widows: Victims of discrimination. New Delhi: Guild of Service.

Hamilton, S. (2002). Neoliberalism, gender and property rights Mexico, Latin American Research Review 37(1), pp. 11-43.

Hans, A., Mishra, P. and Patel, A. M. (2009). Orissa. In: Chowdhry, P. ed.,Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 10.

Harding, L. and Robertson, C. (2008). Video: The forgotten women of Slyozi [online]. The Guardian, February 11. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2008/feb/11/women.of.slyozi [accessed July 2009].

Hari, J. (2009). Witch-hunt: Africa’s hidden war on women. In: Independent Life, The Independent,  pp. 2-6.

Harma, R. F. (2008). Widowed Bangladeshi garment worker ‘Salma’s’ account of working conditions in the Bangladesh export garment industry factories. Notes from group interview, London.

Harma, R. F. (2009). Child labor in Nigeria. In: Hindman, H. D. ed. The world of child labour: An historical and regional survey. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

Harma, R. F. (2009). Global march against child labour. In: Hindman, H. D. ed. The world of child labour: An historical and regional survey. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

Harma, R. F. (2011). Widows. In: Kaminsky, A. P. and Long, R. D. eds. India today: An encyclopedia of life in the republic. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Hartford-hwp.com (2002). ‘Spotlight’ on Jukka Takala, Director of ILO Safe Work [online]. Available at: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/26/187.html [accessed July 2009].

Haughton, J. and Khandker. S. R. (2009). Handbook on poverty and inequality. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

Hearn, J. (2001). Nation, state and welfare: The cases of Finland and the UK. In: Pease, B. and Pringle, K. eds. A man’s world? Changing men’s practices in a globalised world. London: Zed Books, ch. 6.

Help Age International (2002). State of the world’s older people 2002. London: Help Age International.

Help Age International (n.d.) No country for old women. Available at: http://www.helpageusa.org/newsroom/features/no-country-for-old-women/ [accessed March 2015]

Herek, G. M. and Capitanio, J. P. (1999). AIDS stigma and sexual prejudice. American Behavioral Scientist 42: pp. 1126-1143.

Hershatter, G. (2007). Women in China’s long twentieth century. London: University of California Press.

Heymann, J. (2006). Forgotten families: Ending the growing crisis confronting children and working parents in the global economy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hindu, The (2009). ‘Alcoholism plaguing Kerala: President’, December 29.

Holden, K. C. (1988). Poverty and living arrangement among older women: Are changes in economic well-being underestimated? Journal of Gerontology 43(1), pp. 22-27.

Holden, K. C., Burkhauser, R. B. and Myers, D. A. (1986). Income transition at older stages of life: The dynamics of poverty. The Gerontologist 26(3), pp. 292-297.

Horrell, S. and Krishnan, P. (2007). Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe. Journal of Development Studies 43(8), pp 1351-1380.

Hotez, P. J. (2008). Forgotten people, forgotten diseases: The neglected tropical diseases and their impact on global health and development. Washington, D. C.: American Society of Microbiology.

Hotez, P. J. (2010). A plan to defeat neglected tropical diseases. Scientific American.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (1996). Shattered lives: Sexual violence during the Rwandan genocide and its aftermath. New York: HRW.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2003). Double standards: Women’s property rights violations in Kenya [online]. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/en/node/12352/section/1 [accessed August 2009].

Hurd, M. D. (1991). Changing social security survivorship benefits and the poverty of widows. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working paper.

Hurd, M. D. and Wise, D. A. (1989). The wealth and poverty of widows: Assets before and after the husband’s death. In: Wise, D. A. ed. Economics of aging. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hurley, J. (2005). Unravelling the web: Supply chains and workers’ lives in the garment industry. In: Hale, A. and Wills, J. eds. Threads of labour: Garment industry supply chains from the workers’ perspective. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, ch. 5.

IFAD (1998b). Ghana: Mid-term evaluation of LACOSREP I. Office of Evaluation and Studies. Rome: IFAD.

IFAD (2000). IFAD’s Gender Strengthening Programme in Eastern and Southern Africa. Rome, Italy.

IFAD (2009). Uganda, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire – The situation of widows [online]. Available at: http://www.ifad.org/gender/learning/challenges/widows/55.htm [accessed August 2015].

Ihromi, S., Kriekhof, S. and Irianto, S. (1996). Perkembangan Hukum Waris Janda dan Anak Perempuan dalam Masyarakat Batak Toba, Laporan Penelitian [Development of inheritance law concerning the widow and daughter in Batak Toba society, a reasearch report]. Jakarta: National Institute of Law Development.

ILO (2006). The end of child labour: Within reach. Geneva: ILO.

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2000a). Nigeria: A ritual by the name of ‘isiku’ that a widow is subjected to upon the death of her husband [online]. Research Directorate. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ad702c.html

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2000b). Refworld, Nigeria: Rights of widows to inherit property in a civil marriage where there was neither will nor children; inheritor of the property upon her death [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6ad6f0.html [accessed August 2009].

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2007). Refworld, Afghanistan: Acquisition of widow status, both social and legal, when husband is missing or presumed dead; impact on a woman’s status if a husband reappears after she has remarried; ability to divorce a first husband who has been missing for years (2003-2006) [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/469cd6b02.html [accessed September 27 2009].

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2008). Refworld, The Leader in Refugee Decision Support, Kenya: Widow inheritance amongst the Kisa sub-tribe of the Luhya tribe [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/485ba868c.html [accessed August 2009].

Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) (2003). Wahidullah Amani: ‘Islamic ruling to help war widows’, October 8. Accessed July 7 2006

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) (2002). Spotlight on Jukka Takala, Director of ILO Safe Work [online]. Available at: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/26/187.html.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (1998a). Sécurité alimentaire et problématique hommes/femmes dans la région de Nord-Est. Technical Advisory Division. Rome: IFAD.

International Labor Organization (ILO) (2004). ‘28 April, world day for safety and health at work – Two million work deaths a year: A preventable tragedy’ [online]. ILO, April 28. Available at:  http://www.ilo.org/global/About_the_ILO/Media_and_public_information/Fe…— en/WCMS_075605/index.htm [accessed July 2009].

International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2006). New lease of life for Afghan war widows. (United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, UNAMA website). Accessed June 12 2006.

International Women’s Human Rights Clinic at Georgetown University Law Center and The Federation of Women Lawyers, Kenya (2009). Empowering women with rights to inheritance – A report on amendments to the Law of Succession Act necessary to ensure women’s human rights: A human rights report and proposed legislation. Georgetown Journal of International Law 40, pp. 129-289.

Ireson-Doolittle, C. (1999). Gender and Changing Property Rights in Laos. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ch. 8.

Irianto, S. (2002). Competition and interaction between state law and customary law in the court room: A study of inheritance cases in Indonesia [online]. Available at: http://www.jlp.bham.ac.uk/volumes/49/irianto-art.htm [accessed August 2009].

Irianto, S. (2003). Perempuan Di antara Berbagai Pilihan Hukum, Strategi Perempuan Batak Toba Untuk Mendapatkan Akses kepada Harta Waris melalui Proses Penyelesaian Sengketa [Women within the choices of law: A study of the strategy of Batak Toba women to gain access to inheritance through dispute settlement processes]. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

IRIN News (2009). IRAQ: Caravan camp for displaced widows’ families [online]. IRIN News. Available at: http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=83688.

IRIN News (2014). ‘Mourning versus survival in Swaziland’ [online]. IRIN News, April 21. Available at: http://www.irinnews.org/report/99961/mourning-versus-survival-in-swazil….

Ivaschenko, O. (2006). Longevity in Russia’s regions: Do poverty and low public health spending kill? In: McGillivary, M. and Clarke, M. eds. Understanding human well-being. World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER). Paris: United Nations Press.

IWPR (2011). ‘Congolese widows stripped of inheritance’ [online]. IWPR, June 27 Available at: https://iwpr.net/global-voices/congolese-widows-stripped-inheritance.

Izuhara, M. (2009). Housing, care and inheritance. London: Routledge.

Izumi, K. ed. (2006). Reclaiming our lives: HIV and AIDS, women’s land and property rights and livelihoods in Southern and East Africa, narrative and responses. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC).

Jeffery, P., Jeffery, R. and Lyon, A. (1988). Labour pains and labour power: Women and childbearing in India. London: Zed Books.Jeffrey, R. (1992). Politics, women and well-being: How Kerala became a model. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jeffery, P. and Jeffery, R. (1993). Traditional birth attendants in rural North India. In: Lindenbaum, S. and Lock, M. eds. Knowledge, power, and practice in medicine and everyday life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Jeffery, P. and Jeffery, R. (1996). Don’t marry me to a plowman! Women’s everyday lives in rural North India. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Jha, H. (2009). Bihar. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 2.

Jha, J. and Jhingran, D. (2005). Elementary education for the poorest and other deprived groups: The real challenge of universalization. New Delhi: Manohar.

Jones, N. (2007). ‘Gender fatigue: What can we do to overcome it?’ [online]. Overseas Development Institute, March 7. Available at: http://www.odi.org/comment/1051-gender-fatigue-can-overcome.

Joya, M. (2009). Raising my voice. London: Rider.

Kalla, K. and Cohen, J. (2007). Ensuring justice for vulnerable communities in Kenya. New York: Open Society Law and Health Initiative and East Africa Initiative.

Kamal, S. (2007). Development on-air: women’s radio production in Afghanistan. Gender and Development 15(3), pp. 399-411.

Kandiyoti, D. (1999). Poverty in transition: An ethnographic critique of household survey in post-Soviet Central Asia. Development and Change 30, pp. 499-524.

Kanki, P. J. and Marlink, R. G. eds. (2009). A line drawn in the sand: Responses to the AIDS treatment crisis in Africa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.

Kara, S. (2009). Sex trafficking: Inside the business of modern slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.

Karamcheva, N. and Munnell, A. H. (2007). Why are widows so poor? Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. no. 7-9. July.

Karna, M. N. (2009). Meghalaya. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 9.

Kessy, F., Kweka, J., Makaramba, R. and Kiria, I. (2008). Vulnerability and property rights of widows and orphans in the era of the HIV and AIDS pandemic: A case study of Muleba and Makete districts, Tanzania. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

Khor, M. (2005). The commodities crisis and the global trade in agriculture: Present problems and some proposals. In: Cheru, F. and Bradford, C. eds. The millennium development goals: Raising the resources to tackle world poverty. London: Zed Books, ch. 6.

Kishor, S. (1998). Gender Differentials in Child Mortality: a review of the evidence. In: Das Gupta, M., Krishnan, T. N. and Chen, L. C. eds. Women’s health in India: Risk and vulnerability. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ch. 2.

Klare, M. (1997). An avalanche of guns: Light weapons trafficking and armed conflict in the post-Cold War era. In: Kaldor, M. and Vashee, B. eds. Restructuring the global military sector, volume I: New wars. London: Pinter, ch. 3.

Krishnaraj, M. (2007). Food security, agrarian crisis and rural livelihoods: Implications for women. In: Krishnaraj, M. ed. Gender, food security and rural livelihoods. Kolkata: Stree, ch. 2.

Krishnaraj, M. ed. (2007). Gender, food security and rural livelihoods. Kolkata: Stree.

Kubzansky, L. D., Krieger, N., Kawachi, I., Rockhill, B., Steel, G. K. and Berkman, L. F. (2001). United States: Social inequality and the burden of poor health. In: Evans, T., Whitehead, M., Diderichsen, F., Bhuiya, A. and Wirth, M. eds. Challenging inequalities in health: From ethics to action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. 9.

Kuehnast, K. (2002). Poverty shock: the impact of rapid economic change on the women of the Kyrgyz Republic. In: Marc, A., Dudwick, N. and Gomart, E. eds. When things fall apart: Qualitative studies of poverty in the former Soviet Union. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, ch. 3.

Kumar, K. (2001). Civil war, women, and gender relations: An overview. In: Kumar, K. ed. Women and civil war: Impact, organizations and action. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ch. 1.

Kung, H. M. (1997). The effect of gender, marriage, and family on psychological distress: A case study of Taiwan’s changing society. In: Chang, L. Y., Lu, Y. H. and Wang, F. C. eds. Taiwanese society in 1990s: Taiwan social change survey symposium series II. Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica.

Laderchi, C. R., Saith, R. and Stewart, F. (2006). Does it matter that we do not agree on the definition of poverty? A comparison of four approaches. In: McGillivray, M. and Clarke, M. eds. Understanding human well-being. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, ch. 2.

La Franière, S. (2005). ‘AIDS now compels Africa to challenge widows’ ‘cleansing’’ [online]. New York Times, May 11. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/11/international/africa/11malawi.html?pa… [accessed July 2009].

Lampietti, J. A. and Stalker, L. (2000). Consumption expenditure and female poverty: A review of the evidence. Policy research report on gender and development series, working paper series no. 11. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Lee, S. H. (2004). ‘Rice plus’ and family solidarity: Rural Cambodian widows’ economic coping practices [online]. Available at: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p109329_index.html [accessed August 2009].

Lee, S. H. (2006). ‘Rice plus’: Widows and economic survival in rural Cambodia. Abingdon: CRC Press.

Legros, D. and Brown, V. (2001). Documenting violence against refugees. The Lancet 357.

Levinson, A., Stouchevskaya, O., Bocharova, O. and Lerner, A. (2002). The Russian federation: Struggling against the tide. In: Narayan, D. and Petesch, P. eds. Voices of the poor: From many lands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. 11.

Levy, S. ed. (2005). Starter packs: A strategy to fight hunger in developing countries: Lessons from the Malawi experience 1998-2003. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing.

Liverani, A. (2008). Civil society in Algeria: The political functions of associational life. Abingdon: Routledge.

Loomba Foundation, The (2011). Global overview of deprivation faced by widows and women who have lost partners: Widows research report 2010. London: The Loomba Foundation. (Referred to as “the 2010 Study” in this report.)

Lopata, H. Z. (1996). Current widowhood: Myths and realities. London: Sage Publications Inc.

Lopata, H. Z. and Brehm, H. P. (1986). Widows and dependent wives: From social problem to federal program. Eastbourne, UK: Praeger Publishers.

Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T. and Murray, C. J. L. eds. (2006). Global burden of disease and risk factors. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lopez, A. D. and Murray, C. J. L. eds. (1996). The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Vol. 1 of Global burden of disease and injury series. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Loyd, A. (1999). My war gone by, I miss it so. London: Doubleday.

Luce, E. (2006). In spite of the gods: the strange rise of modern India. London: Abacus.

Luke, N. (2001). The cultural significance of widowhood: Widow inheritance and the position of Luo widows in the 1989 Kenya census. Paper prepared for Virtual Conference of African Households, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, November 21-24.

Luke, N. (2002). Widowhood and ‘professional inheritors’: Understanding AIDS risk perception in Kenya. Paper presented at Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 8-11, Atlanta, GA.

Mackintosh, M. (1989). Gender, class and rural transition: Agribusiness and the food crisis in Senegal. London: Zed Books.

Madan, V. ed. (2002). The village in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Madeley, J. (2002). Food for all: The need for a new agriculture. London: Zed Books.

Magnuson, K. A. and Duncan, G. J. (2002). Parents in poverty. In: Bornstein, M. H.  ed. Handbook of parenting: Volume 4: Social conditions and parenting. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Magoke-Mhoja, M. E. (2008). Child-widows silenced and unheard: Human rights sufferers in Tanzania. Milton Keynes: Author House.

Marland, S., Clements, A., Rae, L. and Valvasori, A. (2008). World poverty for dummies. Queensland, Australia: Wiley Publishing.

Marsden, P. (1998). The Taliban: War, religion and the new order in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books.

Masci, D. (2002). Famine in Africa. CQ Researcher, 12(39).

Mbiti, J. S. (1991). Introduction to African religion, 2nd ed. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.

Mboyah, D. (2014). Disinheritance of widows to blame for increased HIV infections [online]. AWC, August 19. Available at: http://awcfs.org/kw/article/disinheritance-widows-blame-increased-hiv-i….

McDonald, J. M. (1987). Support for American black wives and widows. In: Lopata, H. Z. ed. Widows: North America, volume II. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, ch. 7.

McElroy, M. (1990). The empirical content of Nash-bargained household behavior. Journal of Human Resources 25(4), pp. 559-583.

McGarry, K. and Schoeni, R. F. (2005). Medicare gaps and widow poverty. Social Security Bulletin 66(1), pp. 58-74.

McGrath, R. (1994). Landmines: Legacy of conflict – A manual for development workers. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Mehta, A. (2000). The micro politics of participatory projects: An anatomy of change in two villages. In: Peters, P. E. ed. Development encounters: Sites of participation and knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Institute for International Development, ch. 2.

Mehta, D. (2008). Forgotten women. Film documentary.

Merry, S. E. (2009). Gender violence: A cultural perspective. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mines Advisory Group (MAG) (2009). ‘Lebanon: a widow’s remarkable tale [online]’. Available at: http://www.maginternational.org/news/lebanon-a-widows-remarkable-tale-/ [accessed September 26 2009].

Ministère des Finances et de la Planification Économique, Service National de Recensement (2005). Synthèse des analyses des données du recensement 2002 du Rwanda. 3ème recensement général de la population et de l’habitat au 15 août 2002. Kigali.

Minot, N. and Baulch, B. (2006). Poverty mapping with aggregate census data: What is the loss in precision? In: Kanbur, R., Venables, A. J. and Wan, G. eds. Spatial disparities in human development: Perspectives from Asia. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Mishra, S. (2006). Farmer suicides in Maharashtra. Economic and Political Weekly 41, pp. 1538-45.

Mohan, D. (1993). Avoidable dangers on the farm. World Health 46(1), pp. 12-13.

Moore, R. L. (1987). Are male/female earnings differentials related to life-expectancy-caused pension cost differences? Economic Inquiry 25, pp. 389-401.

Moors, A. (1996). Gender relations and inheritance: Person, power and property in Palestine. In: Kandiyoti, D. ed. Gendering the Middle East. London: T. B. Tauris and Co., ch. 4.

Moremen, R. D. (2003). Dying of AIDS and social stigmatization. In: Bryant, C. D. ed. Handbook of death and dying. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..

Morgan, L. A. (1981). Economic change at mid-life widowhood: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family 43, pp. 899-907.

Morgan, L. A. (1991). Economic security of older women: Issues and trends for the future. In: Hess, B. B. and Markson, E. W. eds. Growing old in America, 4th ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, ch. 17.

Mueller, H., Helena, M. and Yunes, J. (1993). Adolescence: Misunderstandings and hopes. In: Gómez, E. G. ed. Gender, women and health in the Americas. Washington, D. C.: Pan American Health Organisation.

Mullahy, J. and Wolfe, B. L. (2000). Health policies for the non-elderly poor. In: Danziger, S. H. and Havemen, R. H. eds. Understanding poverty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ch. 8.

Murphy, R. (2004). The impact of labor migration on the well-being and agency of rural Chinese women: Cultural and economic contexts and the life course. In: Gaetano, A. M. and Jacka, T. eds. Women in rural-to-urban migration in contemporary China. New York: Columbia University Press, ch. 8.

Murray, C. J. L., King, G., Lopez, A. D., Tomijima, N. and Krug, E. G. (2002). Armed conflict as a public health problem. British Medical Journal 324, pp. 346-349.

Mutongi, K. (2007). Worries of the heart: Widows, family, and community in Kenya. London: Chicago University Press.

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (2008). Winners and losers in India: a major humanitarian crisis in a booming economy [online], March 31. Available at: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/news/article.cfm?id=2581 [accessed April 2009].

Namubiru-Mwaura, E. L. (2012). Women and customary land tenure in Liberia. Annual World Bank Conference on Land Policy and Administration, Washington, April 2012.

Nantulya, V. M. and Muli-Musiime, F. (2001). Kenya: Uncovering the social determinants of road traffic accidents. In: Evans, T., Whitehead, M., Diderichsen, F., Bhuiya, A. and Wirth, M. eds. Challenging inequalities in health: From ethics to action. New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 15.

Narayan, D., Chambers, R., Shah, M. K. and Petesch, P. (2000). Voices of the poor: Crying out for change. New York: Oxford University Press.

National Bureau of Statistics, Government of China (2008). China statistical yearbook 2008, no. 27. Beijing: China Statistics Press.

National Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nigeria (2008). Annual abstract of statistics 2008. Abuja.

National Institute of Statistics, Cambodia (1999). General population census of Cambodia 1998: Final census results. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Planning.

National Statistical Bureau, Royal Government of Bhutan (2005). Statistical yearbook of Bhutan 2005, catalogue no. 101.

National Statistical Office of Mongolia, Government of Mongolia (2002). Gender in Mongolia: Analysis based on the 2000 Census. Population and Housing Census 2000. Ulaanbaatar.

NDTV.com (2012). Widow sold for Rs 60,000 in Madhya Pradesh [online]. NDTV, May 3. Available at: http://www.ndtv.com/cities/widow-sold-for-rs-60-000-in-madhya-pradesh-480455.

Newbury, C. and Baldwin, H. (2001). Profile: Rwanda. In: Kumar, K. ed. Women and civil war: Impact, organizations and action. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ch. 1.

New Internationalist (2005). Rukshana: ‘It’s easy to fall in love, but very difficult to endure it’. New Internationalist 377, pp. 22-24. Reporter Dionne Bunsha from Frontline magazine, India.

New Internationalist (2007). The world guide, 11th ed. Oxford: New Internationalist Publications Ltd.

Niazi, S. (2011). Miner tuberculosis creates village of widows in rural India [online]. Women’s News Network, Jaunary 13. Available at: http://womennewsnetwork.net/2011/01/13/india-miners-tb-widows/.

Nickell, S. and Bell, B. (1995). The collapse in demand for the unskilled and unemployment across the OECD. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11(1).

Noland, M. (2001). Famine in North Korea: Causes and cures. Economic Development and Cultural Change 49(4).

Nord, M., Andrews, M. and Carlson, S. (2006). Household food security in the United States, 2005. US Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Nordheimer, J. (1996). One day’s death toll on the job. New York Times December 22, pp. F1, F10, F11.

Ntozi, J. P. M. (1997). Widowhood, remarriage and migration during the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda. Health Transition Review 7, pp. 125-44. Cited in Jones, A. (2006) Men of the global South: A reader. London: Zed Books.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2000). Women and human development: The capabilities approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nyanzi, S. (2006). Widow inheritance. In: Jones, A. Men of the global South: A reader. London: Zed Books.

Nyanzi, S., Emodu-Walakira, M. and Serwaniko, W. (2007). ‘Sleeping with my dead husband’s brother!’ The impact of HIV and AIDS on widowhood and widow inheritance in Kampala, Uganda. HIV/AIDS and Public Health Policy Research in Africa fellowship working paper, Social Science Research Council, UNESCO.

Nytimes.com (2004). Africa’s homeless widows [online]. New York Times, June 16. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/16/opinion/16WED1.html?th [accessed July 2009].

Obaid-Chinoy, S. (2007a). Forgotten women turn Kabul into widows’ capital [online]. RAWA News, May 17. Available at: http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/2007/05/17/forgotten-women-turn-kabul-i… [accessed August 2009].

Obaid-Chinoy, S. (2007b). Afghanistan Unveiled. Dispatches, May 17. London: Channel 4.

Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Unocha.org, (2015). Emergencies | OCHA [online]. Available at: http://www.unocha.org/where-we-work/emergencies.

One World Action (2001). Developing gender-sensitive local services. Report on the One World Action seminar (London, 28-29 June 2000). London: The British Council.

OneWorld South Asia (OWSA) (2008). Sri Lanka’s war widows continue to suffer [online]. OWSA, December 19. Available at: http://southasia.oneworld.net/todaysheadlines/sri-lankas-war-widows-con…. Also reported as ‘Plight of Sri Lanka’s war widows’ in Tamil Guardian, December 24 2008. Available at: http://www.tamilguardian.com/print.asp?articleid=2067 [accessed January 2009].

Oppong, C. (2004). Demographic innovation and nutritional catastrophe: Change, lack of change and difference in Ghanaian family systems. In: Therborn, G. ed. African families in a global context. Research report no. 131. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikrainstitutet (Nordic African Institute), ch. 2.

ORC Macro International (1987). Liberia demographic and health survey (DHS) 1986. Calverton, Maryland, USA.

ORC Macro International (1993). Rwanda demographic and health survey (DHS) 1992. Calverton, Maryland, USA.

ORC Macro International (2001). Rwanda demographic and health survey (DHS) 2000. Calverton, Maryland, USA.

ORC Macro International (2006). Rwanda demographic and health survey (DHS) 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA.

ORC Macro International (2008). Liberia demographic and health survey (DHS) 2007. Calverton, Maryland, USA.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Statistics Canada (2000). Literacy in the information age: Final report of the international adult literacy survey. Paris: OECD.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Statistics Canada (2005). Learning a living: First results of the adult literacy and life skills survey. Paris: OECD.

Osborne, H. (2005). Women face pension poverty. The Guardian, October 20.

Owen, M. (1996). A world of widows. London: Zed Books.

Oxfam GB (2009). Issues we work on | Oxfam GB [online]. Available at: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/oxfam_in_action/issues/trade.html [accessed June 2009].

Oxfam International (2002). Rigged rules and double standards: Trade, globalisation, and the fight against poverty. Oxford: Oxfam International.

Oxfam International (2004). Trading away our rights: Women working in global supply chains. Oxford: Oxfam International.

Oxfam International (2009). In her own words: Iraqi women talk about their greatest concerns and challenges. Oxford: Oxfam International.

O’Carroll, L. (2014). ‘World leaders ‘failing to help’ over ebola outbreak in Africa’. The Guardian, August 19 2014. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/aug/19/western-leaders-Ebola-ou….

Panagariya, A. (2008). India: The emerging giant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pandey, N. (2003). Case study on female garment workers in Bangalore. Hyderabad: Oxfam GB.

Pankhurst, D. (2003). The sex war and other wars: Towards a feminist approach to peace. In: Afshar, H. and Eade, D. eds. Development, women and war: Feminist perspectives. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Paravil, G. ed. (2000). Kerala: The development experience: Reflections on sustainability and replicability. London: Zed Books.

Parvez, M. (2009). Assam. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 1.

Patel, R. (2007). Stuffed and starved: Markets, power and the hidden battle for the world’s food system. London: Portobello Books.

Pender, J. and Gebremedhin, B. (2006). Land management, crop production, and household income in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: An econometric analysis. In: Pender, J., Place, F. and Ehui, S. eds. Strategies for sustainable land management in the Eastern African highlands. Washington, D. C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, ch. 5.

Perry, B., Oluoch, L., Agot, K., Taylor, J., Onyango, J., Ouma, L., Otieno, C., Wong, C. and Cornell, A. (2014). Widow cleansing and inheritance among the Luo in Kenya: the need for additional women-centred HIV prevention options [online]. Journal of International AIDS Society 17. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074366/.

Peterman, A. (2011). Widowhood and asset inheritance in sub-Saharan Africa: empirical evidence from 15 countries. Working paper no. 183. UK: Chronic Poverty Research Centre.

Phadke, S. (2008). Women’s status in north-eastern India. New Delhi: Decent Books.

Phillips, M. R., Li, X. and Zhang, Y. (2002). Suicide rates in China, 1995-99. The Lancet 359(9309), pp. 835-840.

Pickup, F., Williams, S. and Sweetman, C. (2001). Ending violence against women: A challenge for development and humanitarian work. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Pilger, J. (2007). The war on democracy. 101 mins. Youngheart Entertainment and Granada.

Plan International (2009). Because I am a girl: The state of the world’s girls 2009; Girls in the global economy: adding it all up. London: Plan UK.

Pogge, T. W. (2007a). World poverty and human rights, 2nd ed. London: Polity Press.

Pogge, T. W. (2007b). Freedom from poverty as a human right: Who owes what to the very poor? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan (2001). 1998 Census report of Pakistan. Census publication no. 160. Islamabad.

Potash, B. ed. (1986). Widows in African societies: Choices and constraints. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Povey, E. R. (2003). Women in Afghanistan: Passive victims of the Borga or active social participants? In: Afshar, H. and Eade, D. eds. Development, women and war: Feminist perspectives. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Press, R. M. (1999). The new Africa: Dispatches from a changing continent. Miami: University Press of Florida.

Property Rights Alliance (2009). International property rights index (IPRI) 2009 report. Washington, D. C.: Property Rights Alliance. Available at: www.internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/atr_Final1.pdf.

Prunier, G. (2009). From genocide to continental war: The Congolese conflict and the crisis of contemporary Africa. London: Hurst and Co. Publishers.

Pryer, J. A. (2003). Poverty and vulnerability in Dhaka slums: The urban livelihoods study. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd..

Quisumbing, A. R. and Meinzen-Dick, R. S. (2001). Overview. In: Quisumbing, A. R. and Meinzen-Dick, R. S. eds. Empowering Women to Achieve Food Security, Focus 6. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Rahman, O., Foster, A. and Menken, J. (1992). Older widow mortality in rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine 43(1), pp. 86-90.

Rai, S. M. (2008). The gender politics of development. London: Zed Books.

Ramachandran, V. K. (1996). On Kerala’s development achievements. In: Drèze, J. and Sen, A. eds. (1998) Indian development: Selected regional perspectives. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ch. 4.

Rao, N. (2008). Good women do not inherit land: Politics of land and gender in India. Delhi: Social Science Press.

Reddy, D. N. and Mishra, S. (2008). Crisis in agriculture and rural distress in post-reform India. In: Radhakrishna, R. ed. India development report 2008. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ch. 3.

Rehn, E. and Johnson Sirleaf, E. (2002). Women, war and peace: the independent experts’ assessment on the impact of armed conflict on women and women’s role in peace-building. New York: UNIFEM.

Robinson, G. (2010). If you leave us here we will die: How genocide was stopped in East Timor. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rodrik, D. (2005). Public lecture on international trade regimes and economic development. London School of Economics, November 18 2005, London.

Rohde, D. (1997). End game: the betrayal and fall of Srebrenica, Europe’s worst massacre since World War II. Basic Books.

Rosenberg, J. (2003). Megadeaths: Individual reactions and social responses to massive loss of life. In: Bryant, C. D. ed. Handbook of death and dying. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..

Rothenbacher, F. (1998). Statistical sources for social research on Western Europe 1945-1995: A guide to social statistics. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

Rubin, U. (2007). The Rocket Campaign against Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War. Mideast security and policy studies no. 71, the Begin-Sadat Center for strategic studies, Bar-Ilan University, Israel.

Ruble, K. (2015). ‘Liberia’s ebola widows face grim future as world’s deadliest outbreak subsides’ [online]. VICE News, March 18. Available at: https://news.vice.com/article/liberias-Ebola-widows-face-grim-future-as….

Ruspini, E. (2001). Women and poverty: A new research methodology. In: Gordon, D. and Townsend, P. eds. Breadline Europe: the measurement of poverty. London: The Policy Press.

Ruthven, M. (2000). Islam in the world, 2nd ed. London: Penguin Books.

Rwomire, A. ed. (2001). African women and children: Crisis and response. Westport, CA: Praeger.

Sachs, J. D. (2005). The end of poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime. London: Penguin Books.

Sadid, L. (2006). ‘Suicide an option for desperate war-widows’ [online]. Pajhwok Afghan News, August 14. Available at: http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/mideast/afghanistan/4170.html.

Salamone, F. A. (1986). Will she, won’t she? Choice and Dukawa widows. In: Potash, B. ed. Widows in African societies: Choices and constraints. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Samarasinghe, V. (2008). Female sex trafficking in Asia: The resilience of patriarchy in a changing world. London: Routledge, ch. 7.

Sample, I. (2007). Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land. The Guardian, August 31.

Sancho-Liao, N. (1993). ‘Clutching a knifeblade’: Human rights and development from Asian women’s perspective. Focus on Gender 1(2), pp. 31-36.

Sangtin Writers and Nagar, R. (2006). Playing with fire: Feminist thought and activism through seven lives in India. London: University of Minnesota Press.

Santoshi, N. (2014). HIV among elderly on the rise in Madhya Pradesh [online]. Hindustan Times, December 14. Available at: http://www.hindustantimes.com/madhyapradesh/hiv-among-elderly-on-the-ri….

Sauper, H. (2004). Darwin’s nightmare. 107 mins. Produced by Milliet Une Productions, Paris. Available at: http://www.darwinsnightmare.com/

Seabrook, J. (2007). The no nonsense guide to world poverty. London: New Internationalist Publications.

Seiz, J. (1995). Bargaining models, feminism, and institutionalism. Journal of Economic Issues 29(2).

Sen, A. (1990). Gender and cooperative conflicts. In: Tinker, I. ed. Persistent inequalities: women and world development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sethi, R. M. (2009a). Haryana. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications, ch. 3.

Sethi, R. M. (2009b). Himanchal Pradesh. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Sethi, R. M. (2009c). Punjab. In: Chowdhry, P. ed. Gender discrimination in land ownership. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Shah, G. (2006). Untouchability in rural India. London: Sage Publications Ltd..

Shaw, M. (2003). War and genocide: Organized killing in modern society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Sheikh, F. (2005). Moksha. Göttingen: Steidl.

Shkolnikov, V. M., Field, M. G. and Andreev, E. M. (2001). Russia: Socioeconomic dimensions of the gender gap in mortality. In: Evans, T., Whitehead, M., Diderichsen, F., Bhuiya, A. and Wirth, M. eds. Challenging inequalities in health: From ethics to action. New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 11.

Shroff, S. (2008). Agrarian distress and farmers’ suicides in India: Focus on Maharashtra. The India Economy Review 5, pp. 204-209.

Shukri, S. J. A. (1996). Arab women: Unequal partners in development. Aldershot: Avebury, Ashgate Publising.

Sleightholme, C. (1995). Overview of widows and the sex industry. Calcutta: ARGHYA.

Smeeding, T. M., Rainwater, L. and Burtless, G. (2000). United States poverty in cross-national context. In: Danziger, S. H. and Havemen, R. H. eds. Understanding poverty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Smith, C. D. (2001). Women heads of household: The need for empowerment. In: Smith, C. D. Ecology, civil society and the informal economy in North West Tanzania. Aldershot: Ashgate, ch. 10.

Smith, D. (2003). The atlas of war and peace. London: Earthscan Publications.

Smith, J. (1984). The paradox of women’s poverty: Wage earning women and economic transformation. Signs 10(2), pp. 291-310.

Sonbol, A. E.-A. (2003). Women of Jordan: Islam, labor, and the law. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Sorensen, B. (1998). Women and post-conflict reconstruction: Issues and sources. War-torn societies project occasional paper, no. 3, Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies (PSIS) and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), Geneva.

Sossou, M.-A. (2002). Widowhood practices in West Africa: the silent victims. International Journal of Social Welfare 11, pp. 201-209.

Southern African Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC) (2005). Beyond inequalities 2005: Women in Namibia. Windhoek and Harare: University of Namibia and SARDC.

Spicker, P., Alvarez, S. L. and Gordon, D. (2007). Poverty: An international glossary, 2nd ed. London: Zed Books.

Steele, J. and Goldenberg, S. (2008). What is the real death toll in Iraq? The Guardian, March 19.

Stillwaggon, E. (1998). Stunted lives, stagnant economies: Poverty, disease and underdevelopment. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Sweetman, C. (2006). How title deeds make sex safer: women’s property rights in an era of HIV. Background paper for the Oxfam book From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States Can Change the World by Green, D., Oxfam International (2008). Sweetman paper available at: www.fp2p.org.

Tang, A. (2011). Selling sex in Afghanistan: Portraits of sex workers in Kabul. In: Heath, J. and Zahedi, A. eds. Land of the unconquerable: The lives of contemporary Afghan women. Berkeley: University of California Press, ch. 9.

Tekle, T. (1998). Women’s access to land and property rights in Eritrea. Paper presented at the inter-regional consultation in Kigali, Rwanda, February 1998. Currently published in Women’s land and property rights in situations of conflict and reconstruction. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). Available at: http://www.undp.org/unifem/public/landrights.

Tenkorang, E. Y. (2014). Marriage, widowhood, divorce and HIV risks among women in sub-Saharan Africa. International Health 6, pp. 46-53.

Thomas, F. (2008). Remarriage after spousal death: Options facing widows and implications for livelihood security. Gender and Development 16(1), pp. 73-83.

Thompson, M. and Eade, D. (2007). Women and war: Protection through empowerment in El Salvador. In: Eade, D. and Vaux, T. eds. Development and humanitarianism: Practical issues. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc., ch. 7.

Tinker, I. (1999). Women’s empowerment through rights to house and land. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Rienner Lynne Publishers, ch.1.

Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. (1999). Introduction: Women’s changing rights to house and land in Vietnam, Laos, and China. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Rienner Lynne Publishers.

Tipple, G. and Speak, S. (2009). The hidden millions: Homelessness in developing countries. London: Routledge.

Todaro, M. P. and Smith, S. C. (2009). Economic development, 10th ed. London: Addison-Wesley.

Townsend, P. (1996). A poor future: Can we counter growing poverty in Britain and across the world? London: Lemos and Crane.

Treas, J. (1981). Women’s employment and its implications for the status of the elderly of the future. In: Kiesler, S. B., Morgan, J. N. and Kinkaid Oppenheimer, V. eds. Aging: Social change. New York: Academic Press.

Tully, M. (1992). No full stops in India. London: Penguin.

Turner, G. (2008). The credit crunch: Housing bubbles, globalisation and the worldwide economic crisis. London: Pluto Press.

Turner, T. (2007). The Congo wars: Conflict, myth and reality. London: Zed Books.

UNDP (2014). Human development report 2014 – Sustaining human progress: Reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. New York: USA

UNESCO (2005). Education for all global monitoring report 2006: Literacy for life. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

UNIFEM (2006). Gender profile of the conflict in Afghanistan, April 11. Accessed July 7 2006

UNIFEM (N.d.). Gender Advocacy in Afghanistan. Accessed July 7 2006.

Unitarian Universalist Service Committee (UUSC) (2008). Rights in humanitarian crisis. Cambridge, MA.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2005). Early marriage: A harmful traditional practice: A statistical exploration. New York: UNICEF, United Nations.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2006). Africa’s orphaned and vulnerable generations: Children affected by AIDS. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2008). The least developed countries report 2008. Geneva: UNCTAD, United Nations.

United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs (2000). The world’s women 2000: Trends and statisticsSocial statistics and indicators. Series K, no. 16. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/16. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistics Division (1995). The world’s women 1995: Trends and statistics. Social statistics and indicators. Series K, no. 12, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/12. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) (2003). Not a minute more: Ending violence against women. New York: UNIFEM.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2007). Human development report 2007-08: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (1995). The United Nations and the advancement of women. United Nations Blue Book Series, vol. VI. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN Women) (2001). Widowhood: invisible women, secluded or excluded. December 2001 issue of Women 2000. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC), Commission on Human Rights (2006). Integration of the Human Rights of Women and a Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. , Yakin Ertürk. Addendum: Mission to Afghanistan 9 to 19 July 2005.  Available at: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G06/108/06/PDF/G0610806.pdf?…. [accessed July 7 2006]

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2008). State of food insecurity in the world 2008. Rome.

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009). ‘More people than ever are victims of hunger’. Press Release, June 19.

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) (1999). We keep silent until we die. Refugees 2(115), pp. 21-23.

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) (2002). Fighting for equal rights. Refugees 1(126), pp. 4-27.

United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (2014). The Gap Report [online]. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/UNAIDS_Gap_report….

United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (2004). 2004 report on the global AIDS epidemic. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Millennium Goals. Available at: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

United Nations Population Division (2008). World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision [online]. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpp/index.asp [accessed June 2008].

United Nations Population Division (2012). World population prospects: The 2012 revision [online]. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm [accessed January-March 2015].

United Nations Population Division (2015). 2: Population: Latest Available Census and Estimates (2012-2013) [country list]. Updated 17 February 2015.

United Nations Statistics Division (2015). UN data for countries’ marital status census data for various years. Available at: http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3a23.

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Available at: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

United States Census Bureau, (2006). The 2006 Statistical Abstract. The National Data Book. [online] Washington, D.C.: US Department of Commerce. Available at: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2006/income_expenditures_wealth/… [Accessed 13 Sep. 2015].

UN Women (2011). Message from Michelle Bachelet, Under-Secretary General and Executive Director, UN Women, on the occasion of the first commemoration of International Widows’ Day, 23 June 2011 [online]. Available at: http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2011/6/international-widows-day-….

UN Women (2015). Inheritance laws [online]. Available at: http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/767-inheritance-laws.html.

USA Today (2014). Response to Ebola chaotic and inadequate, group says [online]. USA Today, August 27. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/08/27/Ebola-hospitals-ov….

Uvin, P. (2004). Human rights and development. Virginia, USA: Kumarian Press.

Uwakwe, C. B. U. (1997). Socio-cultural factors that predispose women to HIV/AIDS in the middle belt of Nigeria. In: Umeh, D. C. ed. Confronting the AIDS epidemic: Cross-cultural perspectives on HIV/AIDS education. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, ch. 3.

Uzuhashi, T. K. (2009). Japan: Constructing the ‘welfare society’. In: Alcock, P. and Craig, G. eds. International social policy: Welfare regimes in the developed world. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, ch. 11.

Van Vuuren, A. (2003). Women striving for self-reliance: The diversity of female-headed households in Tanzania and the livelihoods strategies they employ. African Studies Centre research report no. 67. Leiden, Netherlands.

Vaux, T. (2001). The selfish altruist: Relief work in famine and war. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

Verma, S. (1997). Indian women still awaiting independence. Human Rights Information Network, India News Network Digest 2(1648).

Viravong, M. (1999). Reforming property rights in Laos. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Vired International (2011). No-sex-for-fish project [online]. Available at: http://www.viredinternational.org/programs/socio-economics-education-an….

Von Struensee, V. (2004). Widows, AIDS, health and human rights in Africa. London School of Economics Crisis States Research Centre, London.

Waite, L. (2000). How is household vulnerability gendered? Female-headed households in the collectives of Suleimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan. Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management 24(2), pp. 153-172.

Wallach, L. and Woodall, P. (2004). Whose trade organization? A comprehensive guide to the WTO. London: The New Press.

Wangwe, S. (2004). The politics of autonomy and sovereignty: Tanzania’s aid relationship. In: Bromley, S., Mackintosh, M., Brown, W. and Wuyts, M. eds. Making the international: Economic interdependence and political order. London: Pluto Press, ch. 12.

Warlick, J. L. (1985). Why is poverty after 65 a woman’s problem? Journal of Gerontology 40(6), pp. 751-757.

Watkins, K. (2008). Deadly virus of the roads [online]. The Guardian, March 26. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/mar/26/globalisation [accessed July 2009].

Watts, J. (2005). Blood and coal: the human cost of cheap Chinese goods [online]. The Guardian, March 24. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/mar/14/china.jonathanwatts [accessed July 2009].

Weinberger-Thomas, C. (1999). Ashes of immortality: Widow-burning in India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Translated by Mehlman, J. and Gordon White, D. Originally published in French (1996) as Cendres d’immortalité. La crémation des veuves en Inde. Paris: Editions du Seuil.

Weir, D. (1998). Prospects for widow poverty. Pension Research Council, Working Paper.

Weir, D. and Willis, R. (2002). Widowhood, divorce, and loss of health insurance among near-elderly women: Evidence from the health and retirement study. Economic Research Initiative on the Uninsured Working Paper Series, paper no. 7. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Weisha, L. (1999). Changes in housing patterns for rural Chinese women. In: Tinker, I. and Summerfield, G. eds. Women’s rights to house and land: China, Laos, Vietnam. London: Rienner Lynne Publishers, ch. 15.

Whitehead, A. and Kabeer, N. (2001). Living with uncertainty: Gender, livelihoods and pro-poor growth in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Working paper 134, Social Policy Programme, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK.

Widows for Peace Through Democracy (WPD) (2009). Dossier on Widowhood: Issues of Discrimination for the Attention of CEDAW.

Widows’ Rights International (2008). Submission to the UN Commission on the status of women by Widows’ Rights International.

Wilson, D. and Claeson, M. (2009). Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in South Asia. In: Haacker, M. and Claeson, M. eds. HIV and AIDS in South Asia: An economic development risk. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, ch. 1.

Wilson, G. (2000). Understanding old age: Critical global perspectives. Sage Publications: London.

Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc.

Womankind (2006). Taking stock update: Afghan women and girls five years on. London. Available online.

Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling (1995). Towards equality: An examination of the status of Palestinian women in existing law. Jerusalem: Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling.

World Bank (2002). Poverty in India: the challenge of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: World Bank.

World Bank (2005). Indonesia Women Headed Households Program (PEKKA). World Bank website.

World Bank (2008a). World development indicators 2008. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

World Bank (2008b). Poverty data: A supplement to world development indicators 2008. Downloadable only. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

World Bank (2008c). Africa development indicators 2007. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

World Bank (2014). World development indicators 2014. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.

World Health Organization (2015). Ebola situation report, January 12 2015.

Worldpublicopinion.org (2009). Poll: Across the world many see discrimination against widows and divorced women – world public opinion [online]. Available at: http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btjusticehuman_rightsra… [accessed June 2009].

Yalcin-Heckmann, L. (1995). Gender roles and female Strategies among the nomadic and semi-nomadic Kurdish tribes of Turkey. In: Tekeli, S. ed. Women in modern Turkish society: A reader. London: Zed Books, ch. 12. Originally published in Turkey (1990) as Kadin Bakis Acisindan: 1980’ler Turkiyesinde Kadinlar. Istanbul: Fletisim Yayinlari.

Young, K. (2006). Widows without rights: challenging marginalisation and dispossession. Gender & Development 14(2), pp. 199-209.

Zahedi, A. (2006). State ideology and the status of Iranian war widows. International Feminist Journal of Politics 8(2), pp. 267-286.

Zangana, H. (2007). City of widows: An Iraqi woman’s account of war and resistance. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Zapata, R., Cuevas Miguel, L., Robledo, C. and Tolbert, K. (1999). Un sistema de medición de la calidad de los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva desde una perspectiva de género. New York: Population Council.

Zur,  J. N. (2001). Violent memories: Mayan war widows in Guatemala. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Zur, J.N. (1993). The psychosocial effects of ‘La Violencia’ on widows of El Quiché, Guatemala. Focus on Gender, special issue on gender and conflict, 1(2): pp. 27-30.